Some countries, such as Syria and Cuba , restrict operation by foreigners to club stations only. In some countries, an amateur radio license is necessary in order to purchase or possess amateur radio equipment. Amateur radio licensing in the United States exemplifies the way in which some countries award different levels of amateur radio licenses based on technical knowledge: three sequential levels of licensing exams Technician Class, General Class, and Amateur Extra Class are currently offered, which allow operators who pass them access to larger portions of the Amateur Radio spectrum and more desirable shorter call signs.
The Technician Class and General Class exams consist of 35 multiple-choice questions, drawn randomly from a pool of at least To pass, 26 of the 35 questions must be answered correctly. Morse Code is no longer tested in the U. Studying for the exam is made easier because the entire question pools for all license classes are posted in advance.
Prospective amateur radio operators are examined on understanding of the key concepts of electronics, radio equipment, antennas, radio propagation , RF safety, and the radio regulations of the government granting the license. These examinations are sets of questions typically posed in either a short answer or multiple-choice format.
Examinations can be administered by bureaucrats , non-paid certified examiners, or previously licensed amateur radio operators. The ease with which an individual can acquire an amateur radio license varies from country to country. In some countries, examinations may be offered only once or twice a year in the national capital and can be inordinately bureaucratic for example in India or challenging because some amateurs must undergo difficult security approval as in Iran.
Currently only Yemen and North Korea do not issue amateur radio licenses to their citizens, although in both cases a limited number of foreign visitors have been permitted to obtain amateur licenses in the past decade. Some developing countries, especially those in Africa , Asia , and Latin America , require the payment of annual license fees that can be prohibitively expensive for most of their citizens.
A few small countries may not have a national licensing process and may instead require prospective amateur radio operators to take the licensing examinations of a foreign country. In countries with the largest numbers of amateur radio licensees, such as Japan , the United States , Thailand, Canada , and most of the countries in Europe , there are frequent license examinations opportunities in major cities.
Granting a separate license to a club or organization generally requires that an individual with a current and valid amateur radio license who is in good standing with the telecommunications authority assumes responsibility for any operations conducted under the club license or club call sign. A few countries may issue special licenses to novices or beginners that do not assign the individual a call sign but instead require the newly licensed individual to operate from stations licensed to a club or organization for a period of time before a higher class of license can be acquired.
A reciprocal licensing agreement between two countries allows bearers of an amateur radio license in one country under certain conditions to legally operate an amateur radio station in the other country without having to obtain an amateur radio license from the country being visited, or the bearer of a valid license in one country can receive a separate license and a call sign in another country, both of which have a mutually-agreed reciprocal licensing approvals. Reciprocal licensing requirements vary from country to country.
Some countries have bilateral or multilateral reciprocal operating agreements allowing hams to operate within their borders with a single set of requirements. Some countries lack reciprocal licensing systems.
When traveling abroad, visiting amateur operators must follow the rules of the country in which they wish to operate. Some countries have reciprocal international operating agreements allowing hams from other countries to operate within their borders with just their home country license. Other host countries require that the visiting ham apply for a formal permit, or even a new host country-issued license, in advance. The reciprocal recognition of licenses frequently not only depends on the involved licensing authorities, but also on the nationality of the bearer.
As an example, in the US, foreign licenses are recognized only if the bearer does not have US citizenship and holds no US license which may differ in terms of operating privileges and restrictions. Many people start their involvement in amateur radio by finding a local club. Clubs often provide information about licensing, local operating practices, and technical advice. Newcomers also often study independently by purchasing books or other materials, sometimes with the help of a mentor, teacher, or friend. Established amateurs who help newcomers are often referred to as "Elmers", as coined by Rodney Newkirk, W9BRD,  within the ham community.
See Category:Amateur radio organizations. An amateur radio operator uses a call sign on the air to legally identify the operator or station. The FCC in the U. Many countries do not follow the ITU convention for the numeral. The newer three-level Intermediate License holders are assigned 2E0xxx and 2E1xx, and the basic Foundation License holders are granted call signs M3xxx or M6xxx.
In the United States , for non-vanity licenses, the numeral indicates the geographical district the holder resided in when the license was first issued. Prior to , US hams were required to obtain a new call sign if they moved out of their geographic district.
Call signs starting with 'V' end with a number after to indicate the political region; prefix CY indicates geographic islands. The last two or three letters of the callsigns are typically the operator's choice upon completing the licensing test, the ham writes three most-preferred options. Callsigns in Canada can be requested with a fee. Also, for smaller geopolitical entities, the numeral may be part of the country identification.
Online callbooks or callsign databases can be browsed or searched to find out who holds a specific callsign. Non-exhaustive lists of famous people who hold or have held amateur radio callsigns have also been compiled and published. In most administrations, unlike other RF spectrum users, radio amateurs may build or modify transmitting equipment for their own use within the amateur spectrum without the need to obtain government certification of the equipment.
Radio amateurs have access to frequency allocations throughout the RF spectrum, usually allowing choice of an effective frequency for communications across a local, regional, or worldwide path. The shortwave bands, or HF , are suitable for worldwide communication, and the VHF and UHF bands normally provide local or regional communication, while the microwave bands have enough space, or bandwidth , for amateur television transmissions and high-speed computer networks.
In most countries, an amateur radio license grants permission to the license holder to own, modify, and operate equipment that is not certified by a governmental regulatory agency. This encourages amateur radio operators to experiment with home-constructed or modified equipment.
The use of such equipment must still satisfy national and international standards on spurious emissions. Amateur radio operators are encouraged both by regulations and tradition of respectful use of the spectrum to use as little power as possible to accomplish the communication. Although allowable power levels are moderate by commercial standards, they are sufficient to enable global communication.
Two rival satellite television systems came on the air at the end of the s: Sky Television and British Satellite Broadcasting. The radio broadcasting of music and talk intended to reach a dispersed audience started experimentally around , and commercially around to Until the s, the popular image of the whole family seated around a set in the living room was the most accepted way of listening to radio. The Hindi Service also helped build Radio Ceylon's reputation as the market leader in the Indian sub-continent. Some stations now operate without direct human intervention by using entirely pre-recorded material sequenced by computer control. Retrieved 2 June When the directional signal is facing north, an omnidirectional signal pulses.
Power limits vary from country to country and between license classes within a country. For example, the peak envelope power limits for the highest available license classes in a few selected countries are: 2. Output power limits may also depend on the mode of transmission. The point at which power output is measured may also affect transmissions. Certain countries permit amateur radio licence holders to hold a Notice of Variation that allows higher power to be used than normally allowed for certain specific purposes. The International Telecommunication Union ITU governs the allocation of communications frequencies worldwide, with participation by each nation's communications regulation authority.
National communications regulators have some liberty to restrict access to these bandplan frequencies or to award additional allocations as long as radio services in other countries do not suffer interference. In some countries, specific emission types are restricted to certain parts of the radio spectrum, and in most other countries, International Amateur Radio Union IARU member societies adopt voluntary plans to ensure the most effective use of spectrum.
In a few cases, a national telecommunication agency may also allow hams to use frequencies outside of the internationally allocated amateur radio bands. In Trinidad and Tobago , hams are allowed to use a repeater which is located on This repeater is used and maintained by the National Emergency Management Agency NEMA , but may be used by radio amateurs in times of emergency or during normal times to test their capability and conduct emergency drills. In the U. Once approved and trained, these amateurs also operate on US government military frequencies to provide contingency communications and morale message traffic support to the military services.
These are commonly called the " WARC bands ".
ITU Radio Regulations. See the appropriate Wiki page for further information. These allocations may only apply to a group of countries. Amateurs use a variety of voice, text, image, and data communications modes over radio. Generally new modes can be tested in the amateur radio service, although national regulations may require disclosure of a new mode to permit radio licensing authorities to monitor the transmissions.
Encryption , for example, is not generally permitted in the Amateur Radio service except for the special purpose of satellite vehicle control uplinks.
AmericanRadioHistory documents the history of radio and TV in a library of Tracking the news and BDS plays of Americas major country stations. Music Guide to . Publications by a leading writer for the hobby and experimenter community Early Television Industry trade magazine from on, FM Magazine. Radio broadcasting is transmission by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format, either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both. The signal types can be either analog audio or digital audio. While many early experimenters attempted to create systems similar to.
The following is a partial list of the modes of communication used, where the mode includes both modulation types and operating protocols. Most amateur digital modes are transmitted by inserting audio into the microphone input of a radio and using an analog scheme, such as amplitude modulation AM , frequency modulation FM , or single-sideband modulation SSB.
The following "modes" use no one specific modulation scheme but rather are classified by the activity of the communication. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Ham radio disambiguation. Join us now for a look at this fast-growing, enthusiastic hobby called QRP! Here is a handy electronics calculator page provided by John Jenkins. No, not the planet. To be a MARS member you must first be a licensed amateur radio operator.
Ever have your hobby get old and boring? Amateur radio will wax and wane throughout your life as all hobbies tend to do. But it will be the only one you will continually come back to and get lasting satisfaction from.