Moisture: The acceptable moisture for milled grains is much less than for whole grains, because there is no longer any breathing to cool the product.
Particle size: Animal feed depends strongly on particle size. The same goes for many human-consumption flours. A set of graduated sieves will allow you to perform a size distribution analysis on any sample of flour. Specks: Small fragments of foreign matter. Hair, feces, rubber, cotton, etc. They show in a visual inspection. Foreign matter: A set of sieves may catch some foreign matter, but for flours as everything is milled you must use chemical digestors and then analyze the results with a microscope. Starch content: It is the most important parameter for flours.
You get it with a NIR analyzer or with an enzymatic test. Starch damage: Sprouting or faulty storage can lead to starch damage. That means the baking quality of the flour decreases. This parameter is analyzed with a Falling Number test. Starch gelatinization: You need a special microscope, or birefringence, with polarized filters. This analysis measures the quantity of gelatinized versus native granules. Protein content: Most of the time it is measured with a NIR. The standard test is the Kjeldahl analysis.
It is one of the most important parameters for animal feed.
Cereal Grains: Laboratory Reference and Procedures Manual - CRC Press Book. Emphasizing the essential principles underlying the preparation of cereal-based products and demonstrating the roles of ingredients, Cereal.
Fat content: In the several stages of oil extraction you have to check the fat content. It also has value in the subproducts that are later sold as animal feed. You can measure it with a NIR or more precisely with a Soxhlet apparatus. Ash content: Basically, you burn all the stuff completely.
Ashes of a complete combustion are not coal, but the mineral residue inorganic materials that remain after all the organic substances turn into smoke. The laboratory is a key piece of the Operations Management in a mill or an elevator. For that purpose, you have some whole grains corn that you mill yourself, some subproducts sunflower expeller of other industries, and some additives minerals and vitamins.
It is very important to learn how to take samples. There are many books on the subject and maybe I will write a couple of articles about it in the future. The size of the samples and the frequency of the sampling varies according to the problems you encounter. If everything goes fine, you check less. If a problem arises, you increase the frequency. You have to check the quality of the grain moisture, foreign matter, specific weight, protein and fat content and of the subproducts fat and protein content, foreign matter.
The equipment for that is basic and cheap.
For the supplements you have to either ask for a quality certificate or get a third-party lab to control the quality for you. Unless you are a major miller, the cost of having your own technicians and equipment for that is not justified. Then you clean, dry, and store the grain.
That is processing. So, you have to check the quality of the grain again after it. Most people only check when they receive and they miss invaluable information on the efficiency of their processes. Milled subproducts are only stored, but the quality of the conservation has to be controlled.
In theory, you should check them at reception and only right before use, if they have been stored for a long time. Storage, as a process, should be controlled with spaced repetition. Start checking them after one month, and then adjust if you find problems or everything is ok. If you find rodent feces, for example, apply some treatment and increase the frequency of the controls.
I like sandwiches and cereal and hooded sweatshirts. Good luck. International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology. SAS Institute. Kumari, R. Islam , M. Lists What are lists?
If everything is ok, check after two months. Supplements are only checked at reception, unless you fully trust the certificates of the supplier. It is a good idea to hire a third-party lab to conduct the analysis as it is easier than setting up your own lab for that.
Just keep an eye on the expiration dates. Important variables to monitor:. Steep water is drained and hydrated grains are recovered and allowed to germinate under controlled conditions. Mechanical agitation is important to avoid developed rootlets. Convective air currents can be applied to improve grain bed drying. The manifestation of these changes is the appearance of rootlets and the acrospire and loss of the physical integrity of grains.
As a result, grains become friable.
Drying kilning. Heat is applied to ensure enzymatic activity has ceased and immature or green malt is converted into its finished form. The malting process renders a significant level of enzyme activity and a wide variety of sugars can be carried into the dough if using malted grains or diastatic malt.
Aspects such as dough softening and side-wall collapse in the baked good keyholing in severe cases can appear if formulating bread with excessive amounts of malted grains or diastatic malt. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Stop by the Innovation Corner! Malt Joanna Evoniuk T Malt Also known as Malting What is Malt? The process encompasses four operations: 3,4 1. Air-rest period between draining and re-flooding the grain bed Dissolved oxygen in steep water Steep water potable with proper hardness and free from extraneous matter 2.